What is the difference between tap water, mineral water, purified water, ultra pure water?

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When shopping at the supermarket, the various bottled water on the shelves are neatly labeled and dazzling. Upon closer inspection, it was found that there are many types of water, and the prices vary. Some sell for 2 yuan, some sell for 20 yuan, and some even charge over a hundred yuan.
Why is the price difference of these water as high as a hundred times? What are the differences between tap water, mineral water, and purified water that we often talk about in our daily lives? Besides price, what are the different effects on the human body after drinking?
Can tap water be consumed with confidence?
Tap water is the most commonly used water in daily life. We use tap water for brushing our teeth, washing our face, washing vegetables, and taking showers. Previously, people would still use boiled tap water as drinking water, but with the emergence of mineral water and purified water, the number of people drinking boiled tap water has decreased.
Can tap water be used as drinking water?



When tap water is purified and disinfected by a water treatment plant, it actually meets the national drinking water quality standards and can be used for people's daily life and production.
There are a total of 35 standards for drinking water quality, including 15 sensory and general chemical indicators, mainly to ensure a good taste of drinking water; Fifteen toxicological indicators and two radiation indicators are used to ensure that water quality does not cause toxicity or potential harm to the human body; Three bacteriological indicators were developed to ensure the epidemiological safety of drinking water.
So, according to national standards, tap water in China can also be consumed directly.
However, tap water may also have certain safety hazards, as it may cause secondary pollution during long-distance pipeline transportation. For example, if the high-pressure water pumps, water tanks, and storage tanks in urban high-rise buildings are not clean or not disinfected throughout the year, it can cause bacteria to reproduce and the tap water to become turbid or yellow.
Therefore, if the water becomes turbid, you can let the faucet run for a while before connecting. If you are still unsure, you can add a layer of insurance, boil the tap water to drink, or use a water purifier as needed.
When using a water purifier, it is also important to pay attention to regular cleaning and maintenance to avoid bacterial growth.
The "Pure" of Pure Water
Pure water and mineral water are the two types of drinking water that we often come into contact with in our daily lives, and there has always been debate about which type of water to drink is better for the body. Purified water, its production process filters various organic pollutants, inorganic salts, all additives, and various impurities, with the goal of obtaining non-toxic, sterile, and pure HO.
However, due to limitations in production processes and costs, the purity of purified water varies. How to determine how pure this water is?
Conductivity is a characteristic indicator that measures the purity of water, and true pure water is non-conductive. But due to the metal elements, microorganisms, and various impurities in the water, its conductivity increases and conducts electricity.
National standards require purified water to not only meet various basic hygiene indicators, but also have a conductivity of ≤ 10 μ S/cm [(25 ± 1) ° C], while the conductivity of household tap water varies depending on the water quality source in each city, generally ranging from 125 to 1250 μ Between S/cm [(25 ± 1) ° C].



Pure water is good because it is pure, but "bad" is also bad because it is pure. Pure water removes almost all trace elements and minerals beneficial to the human body while maintaining a low conductivity. The question arises, will long-term consumption of purified water harm the human body?
In theory, it does cause a deficiency of trace elements and certain minerals in the human body, but there are many ways to supplement trace elements. People also consume other foods in addition to drinking water, so there is no need to worry too much about the harm of drinking pure water to the body.
The "Mine" of Mineral Water
At this point, mineral water has entered people's sight. Mineral water refers to uncontaminated underground mineral water that naturally gushes out from deep underground or is artificially exposed. After filtration through a filter membrane or ozone sterilization, it contains a certain amount of mineral salt, trace elements, or carbon dioxide gas.
Due to the presence of mineral salts and other components in mineral water that can conduct electricity, there are no restrictions on the conductivity of mineral water in national standards, but there are limit indicators for the mineral content in mineral water.
Nine ingredients that are beneficial to human health - lithium, strontium, zinc, iodine, selenium, metasilicic acid, etc. - must meet the requirements (in mg/L) as mineral water. Lithium, strontium, zinc, and iodide must all be ≥ 0.2, selenium ≥ 0.01, bromide ≥ 1.0, metasilicic acid ≥ 25, free carbon dioxide ≥ 250, and total soluble solids ≥ 1000.
Most mineral water on the market belongs to the strontium (Sr) and metasilicate types. At the same time, it is also necessary to meet conventional hygiene indicators and the composition of 18 potentially harmful elements to the human body must not exceed the prescribed limits.
Mineral water is naturally formed, and it is a long and complex process. After the groundwater flows through rock layers containing different components, it undergoes leaching and a series of physical and chemical reactions, allowing trace and constant components in the rocks to enter the groundwater and accumulate to a certain extent, forming various types of mineral water.


More "pure" ultrapure water

On the basis of pure water, ultrapure water also almost completely removes the conductive medium, non dissociative colloidal substances, gases, and organic substances in the water. In theory, the conductivity of ultrapure water is as low as 0.055 μ S/cm [(25 ± 1) ° C].

Ultra pure water does not belong to daily drinking water, which may sound unfamiliar, but in fact, it plays an important role in the production of many industries. A water vapor source commonly used for cleaning semiconductor raw materials and utensils, preparing lithographic masks, and oxidizing silicon wafers, as well as in experiments in the chemical and biological industries.

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